manual testing interview questions

30 Top Manual Testing Interview Questions & Their Answers

Manual testing ensures application quality, functionality, and reliability in software development. Whether you’re a seasoned professional seeking to showcase your expertise or an aspiring tester embarking on your career journey, manual testing interview questions are an opportunity to demonstrate your knowledge and problem-solving skills.

The software testing world is constantly evolving, demanding that testers be adaptable, well-versed in various testing methodologies, and capable of addressing various testing challenges.

Manual testing is manually executing test cases without using automated testing tools. Testers carefully execute test cases, analyze the results, and report defects, if any.

This process involves simulating real user scenarios to ensure the application’s functionality, usability, and performance meet the required standards.

As you prepare for your manual testing interview, you’ll encounter questions that span the breadth of manual testing concepts – from the foundational principles of test case design and defect management to the intricacies of performance testing, compatibility assessments, and more.

Explore our detailed answers to help you showcase your expertise and excel in your next manual testing interview.

30 Manual Testing Interview Questions & Answers

30 Manual Testing Interview Questions & Answers

Interview questions and answers may vary based on the job role, industry, and company.

It’s essential to know the manual testing interview questions for fresher with answers and understand the underlying concepts to have meaningful discussions during the interview.

1. What is manual testing?

Manual testing involves meticulously examining and evaluating software testing applications to identify defects, ensure functionality, and verify that the software meets specified requirements.

Testers manually execute test cases, provide inputs, and compare the actual outcomes against expected results.

2. What is the purpose of test case design techniques?

Test case design techniques aid in creating comprehensive test cases that effectively cover various scenarios, ensuring thorough testing.

These techniques provide systematic approaches for identifying relevant test scenarios, minimizing redundancy, and maximizing coverage. Examples include:

  • Equivalence Partitioning: Dividing input values into equivalent groups to reduce the number of test cases.
  • Boundary Value Analysis: Testing boundary values to uncover potential defects.
  • Decision Table: A structured approach for testing combinations of inputs.
  • State Transition: Validating the transition between different system states.

3. What is a test plan?

A test plan is a detailed equipped document that outlines the testing strategy, scope, objectives, resources, schedule, and deliverables for a testing project.

It defines how testing will be executed, which test cases will be covered, and the testing environment. The test plan acts as a roadmap for the entire testing process.

4. What is the difference between smoke testing and sanity testing?

Smoke testing is a preliminary and shallow test to determine whether a new software build is stable enough for further testing. It helps identify critical issues early on.

Sanity testing, on the other hand, is a more focused test that verifies specific functionalities or areas after changes or bug fixes. The goal is to ensure that recent modifications have kept the core features intact.

5. Explain the difference between functional testing and non-functional testing. 

Functional testing assesses whether the software performs its intended functions correctly. It involves validating input-output scenarios, user interactions, and functional requirements.

Non-functional testing focuses on attributes beyond functionality, such as performance, usability, security, reliability, and scalability.

6. What is regression testing? 

Regression testing is retesting a software application’s modified components to ensure that new changes, bug fixes, or enhancements do not introduce new defects or negatively impact existing functionalities.

It helps maintain the software’s quality and stability throughout its development lifecycle.

7. How do you prioritize test cases? 

Test case prioritization involves identifying and testing critical functionalities or areas first. Factors that influence prioritization include:

  • The criticality of the feature.
  • Its potential impact on the business.
  • The risk involved.
  • The frequency of use.

High-risk areas or features with high business value are typically tested early.

8. What is equivalence partitioning?

Equivalence partitioning is a technique used to divide a range of input values into groups that are expected to behave similarly.

By selecting representative values from each partition, testers can create test cases that effectively cover a wide range of scenarios without testing every possible value.

9. What is the purpose of a test case template?

A test case template provides a standardized format for documenting test cases. It includes fields for test case ID, description, steps, expected results, actual results, status, and notes.

Using a template ensures consistency in documenting test cases and makes it easier for testers to understand and execute them.

10. What is a defect life cycle?

The defect life cycle outlines the various stages that a defect goes through, from identification to resolution. The typical stages include:

  • New: The defect is identified and logged.
  • Assigned: The defect is assigned to a developer for fixing.
  • Fixed: The developer resolves the defect.
  • Verified: The tester verifies the fix.
  • Closed: The defect is closed if it’s successfully verified.
  • Reopened: If the defect resurfaces, it is reopened for further attention.
  • Rejected: If the reported issue is not a valid defect, it is rejected.

11. How do you handle a situation when a defect is not reproducible?

When a defect cannot be reproduced, gathering as much information as possible, including steps to reproduce, the environment used, and any related configurations, is important.

Document your findings and share them with the development team for further investigation. Collaborate with developers to recreate the issue using the provided information if possible.

12. What is usability testing? 

Usability testing evaluates the user-friendliness and overall user experience of a software application. Testers focus on assessing the ease of use, intuitiveness, navigation, and overall satisfaction of end users.

Usability issues include clearer layouts, unintuitive workflows, and difficulty accessing features.

13. What is boundary value analysis? 

Boundary value analysis is a basic testing technique that examines how a software application behaves at the boundaries of input ranges.

Defects often occur at these boundaries due to potential programming and software errors. Testers select input values at the lower and upper boundaries, inside and outside, to ensure thorough testing.

14. What is alpha testing? 

Alpha testing is the first testing phase and is usually performed by the internal development team.

It involves testing the software in-house to identify defects before releasing it to a limited group of external users. The primary goal is to uncover issues before moving on to broader testing.

15. What is beta testing? 

Beta testing occurs after alpha testing and involves releasing the software to a selected group of external users who provide feedback on the software’s usability, functionality, and performance.

This helps identify any remaining issues before the official release to the general public.

16. How would you handle a situation with incomplete or unclear requirements?

In situations with incomplete or unclear requirements, initiating communication with stakeholders, including business analysts, product owners, and developers, is crucial.

Seek clarification on the missing information and document assumptions made during testing. Regularly communicate progress and collaborate to ensure accurate testing.

17. What is ad-hoc testing? 

Ad-hoc testing is an informal approach where testers explore the application without predefined test cases. The goal is to uncover defects that existing test cases might not cover.

Testers use their experience and creativity to simulate real-world scenarios and identify unexpected issues.

18. How do you know when to stop testing?

Deciding when to stop testing involves:

  • Considering factors like meeting testing goals
  • Achieving adequate test coverage
  • The acceptable defect rate
  • Project deadlines
  • The risk appetite of stakeholders

Testing can be concluded if testing goals are met, high-risk areas are thoroughly tested, and critical defects are addressed.

19. What is compatibility testing?

Compatibility testing ensures the software functions correctly across various environments, including browsers, operating systems, devices, and network configurations.

The goal is to ensure consistent performance and appearance regardless of the user’s setup.

20. What is the purpose of a test summary report?

A test summary report is a comprehensive document that provides an overview of the testing activities, results, and status for a particular testing phase.

It includes information about executed test cases, passed and failed tests, defects found, and any deviations from the test plan. This report helps stakeholders assess the quality and readiness of the software for release.

21. What is test data, and why is it important?

Test data are the inputs used in test cases to simulate real-world scenarios. Accurate and relevant test data is crucial for meaningful testing.

It helps testers evaluate the application’s behavior under various conditions, ensuring that all possible scenarios are covered.

22. What is a test environment, and why is it important?

A test environment is a controlled setup that mimics the production environment for testing purposes. It includes hardware, software, networks, databases, and other components necessary for testing.

A well-configured test environment is important as it ensures that testing results accurately reflect how the software will behave in the real world.

23. What is exploratory testing?

Exploratory testing is an unscripted approach where testers actively learn about the application, design test cases on the fly, and execute them simultaneously.

Testers use their domain knowledge, intuition, and creativity to uncover defects that might not be identified using traditional scripted testing.

24. How would you handle a situation where there is miscommunication between you and the development team?

Communication is key in such situations. Document all discussions and decisions to have a clear record of interactions. If there’s a disagreement, escalate the issue to higher authorities or project stakeholders.

Effective communication and collaboration are essential for resolving misunderstandings and ensuring alignment between testing and development teams.

25. What is the difference between positive testing and negative testing? 

Positive testing validates the software’s functions correctly with valid inputs, expected behaviors, and positive test cases.

Negative testing checks how the software handles invalid or unexpected inputs, error conditions, and scenarios not part of normal operations.

26. What is a test harness? 

A test harness is a set of tools, libraries, test scripts, and test data used to automate the execution of test cases.

It provides an environment for testing, simulating user interactions, and controlling the application being tested. A test harness streamlines the testing process and enhances consistency.

27. What is performance testing? 

Performance testing assesses a software application’s performance under different conditions and loads. It focuses on responsiveness, speed, scalability, stability, and resource utilization. Performance testing helps identify performance bottlenecks.

28. What is load testing?

Load testing is the performance testing subset that evaluates an application’s behavior under varying user load levels. It helps determine the maximum number of concurrent users the system can support without degrading performance.

Load testing can identify performance issues under heavy load conditions, such as slow response times and crashes.

29. What is a test script?

A test script is the instructions set that outlines the steps to execute a specific test case manually or through automation.

It includes preconditions, actions to be taken, expected outcomes, and post-execution validations. Test scripts ensure consistency in test execution and can be reused for automation.

30. How do you ensure thorough testing within a limited time frame?

To ensure thorough testing in a limited time frame, follow these strategies:

  • Prioritize testing based on risk and critical functionality.
  • Collaborate closely with developers to address issues promptly.
  • Utilize test automation to cover repetitive and time-consuming test cases.
  • Conduct exploratory testing to uncover defects quickly.
  • Optimize test data and environments for efficiency.
  • Focus on end-to-end testing for critical user flows.

Wrapping Up

Navigating a manual testing interview requires a solid understanding of testing methodologies, strategies, and techniques. Our compilation of manual testing interview questions for experienced equips you with the knowledge needed to tackle any interview scenario.

As you conclude your interview preparation, remember that the true essence of manual testing lies not just in memorizing answers but in comprehending the underlying principles and applying them to real-world scenarios.

Your journey to becoming an exceptional manual tester starts here, with the insights gained from these questions serving as stepping stones toward your professional growth.

From explaining boundary value analysis to delving into performance testing, these questions and answers empower you to demonstrate your expertise, ensuring you stand out as a qualified and confident candidate in the competitive landscape of manual testing.

Rahnuma Tasnim

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